Country Name:
Conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
Conventional short form: Turkey
Local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
Local short form: Turkiye

Government Type: Republican parliamentary democracy
Capital: Ankara
Location: South-eastern Europe and south-western Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E

Area: Total: 780,580 sq km - Water: 9,820 sq km - Land: 770,760 sq km

Land Boundaries:
Total: 2,648 km - Border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km

Coastline: 7,200 km
Climate: Temperature; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Terrain: High central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Elevation extremes: Lowest point: Sea 0m - Highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166m
Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulphur), clay, arable land, hydropower.
Land use: Arable land: 34.53% - Permanent crops: 3.36% - Other: 62.11%


Turkey is a paradise waiting to be discovered. An incredibly varied and beautiful land offering you a breathtaking array of experiences and wonderful contrasts.

To begin with, it’s right at the heart of the world being at the crossroads of three of the world’s great geographical regions: Europe, Asia and the Middle East. Not forgetting that Africa is also just a short journey across the Mediterranean.

With a population of around 68 million, Turkey covers an area of some 800,000 square kilometres and is surrounded by no less than four seas: the Mediterranean in the south, the Aegean Sea in the west, the Marmara Sea to the northwest and the Black Sea to the north. No wonder then that it can boast coastline stretching for over 8,000 kilometres.

Abundant in flora and fauna, Turkey offers a wide-ranging and absorbing variety of landscapes. You can stroll along golden palm-fringed beaches, sail in the morning, ski in the afternoon, discover rivers, lakes, dams, secret coves and plains. Remarkably, and this is why Turkey can offer such a rich tapestry of natural wonders, the country is also mountainous. The Pontic Mountains follow the Black Sea, the Taurus Mountains flank the Mediterranean to the south, while Mount Ararat in the east, where Noah’s Ark is said to have come to rest, is 5,137 metres above sea level.

There are also two more historic names from biblical times, the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, which start from Central Anatolia and flow to the Gulf of Persia. Lakes abound inland with around 200 covering some 9,200 square kilometres.

And if this wasn’t enough, this breathtaking country can truly be described as the cradle of civilisation. The first known settlement in the world was found at Catalhöyuk, northeast from Konya, dating back to an astonishing 6,500 BC. Two of the Seven Wonders of the World are to be found in Turkey: the Artemis Temple in Efes and the Halikarnassos Mausoleum in Bodrum.

In fact, being heir to the history of human development makes Turkey a treasure trove of historical and cultural artefacts. Hattis, Hittites, Phrygians, Urartians, Lycians, Ionians, Lydians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks and Ottomans have all left their mark on this region. Evidence of Turkey’s vibrant and fascinating past can still be seen today in the wealth of statues of gods and goddesses, temples, theatres, agoras, churches, mosques, medresseh and palaces which scatter the towns and countryside. In fact, Turkey is the proud possessor of more recognized historical and archaeological sites than any other country in the world.

But Turkey isn’t just a treasure house of historic artefacts, it’s a thriving, bustling, energetic modern country, with cosmopolitan cities, dazzling marinas, first class hotels and restaurants, and nightclubs which are open throughout the night. Wonderful climate, friendly, hospitable people, world class cuisine, every kind of sport and leisure activity, great service and reasonable prices make Turkey just about the perfect place to visit, to holiday in or to live all year round. And best of all, it’s no further than other popular Mediterranean destinations, being only 3.5 hours flight from London and only slightly further from Dublin


The Turkish education system was restructured in 1997 to meet the needs of this thriving, rapidly developing country. All children between the ages of three and five can go to pre-school, with primary school education being given to all children between from the ages of six and 14. All education is compulsory and free of charge in state schools.

All children who have completed primary school can then apply for secondary education which takes a further three years. After this, some 1.5 million students apply to enter Turkish universities every year and around 250,000 of them pass the demanding examinations.

To cater for the needs of the many foreign residents who are now living in Turkey, a number of international schools have opened where English is spoken and there is also a specialist disabled school which is free and open 24 hours a day.


The Turkish health system is being reorganised to create a sickness insurance service that covers all citizens. Doctors and dentists can be found in all of Turkey’s major hospitals and, in addition, there are a number of foreign-operated hospitals in Istanbul where English is also spoken.


Surely one of the main attractions of Turkey is its wonderful climate. Like most areas of the Mediterranean, Turkey has over 300 sunny days a year, and with over 1,500 kilometres of Mediterranean coastline, it’s the perfect place to enjoy long, lazy days on the beach.

In the Mediterranean and Aegean regions, the summers are hot and dry and the winters are short, warm and mild, with most of the rainfall taking place only from November to February. As the summer temperature is around 86°-105° F (30°- 40° C) and usually above 50° F (10° C) in the winter, you can comfortably swim and sail in these turquoise-coloured waters for nine months of the year.

And that’s not all … because Turkey has inland mountain ranges, the country can offer a wonderful variety of climates. Imagine being able to ski the snowy mountain peaks in the morning and swim and laze around on the beach in the afternoon.

Getting there:

Currently, direct flights take place from the UK to Antalya and Dalaman all year round. In addition, Turkish Airlines flies direct from London and Manchester to Istanbul from where you can catch an internal flight to Dalaman and Bodrum. During the main holiday season,
April to October, there are a number of charter flights various UK, ROI and other European airports direct to Antalya, Dalaman and Bodrum. Talks are also underway to introduce all year round direct flights from the ROI to these airports in the south, to meet the increasing demands for a more direct route for Irish buyers to their homes in Turkey.

Work Permits are either obtained from the Ministry of Labor and Social Security ( Çalışma ve Sosyal Güvenlik Bakanlığı ) or from the Consulates of Turkish Republic abroad. Essential documents needed are:
-          Permisson from the Turkish Consulate.
-          Passport
-          Population information duly certified by notary public.
-          Passport photos.
To receive the permission from the ministry of Labour and Social Security, additional documents are requested. The applicant is given a two-paged document that includes the requested information. The information may be given on a separate page either typed or printed by a computer.
The decleration form requests the following informations; Name of employing company, title, head office address, whether capital is foreign or not, the address the foreigner is going to work at, the type of business the company is involved in, capital information, previous year exportation in dollars, date of establishment, recorded and paid share capital, the total number of Turkish personnel working in the company and the name.
            In addition, the following personal information is required of the person requesting the work permit: Passport number, name and surname, name of father and mother, date and place of birth, marital status and nationality of the wife/husband, if married.
            If a previous work permit had been issued, then the following information is also required: details of the issuing authority and the date and number of previous permit documents, name of previous company, the term of employment that the foreigner worked in that company, the position he/she held and the reason of severance.
            At the and of the declaration form, there is a date , which should be filled in. The employer and the foreign employee should put signatures at the bottom and the employer a cache in addition certifying that the information given by them is true.
            The following additional documents must also be attached to the declaration form: Passport copies that are either certified by a notary public or the applicant’s Consulate. Copies of investment incentive certificates and exportation incentive certificates certified by the Foreign Capital Directorate, the activity report of the last year and the income/outcome table and balance sheet certified by a related tax directorate, Bank letter supporting the last year exportation if the company is an exporting company, and other documents such as letter of recommendation, diploma etc.
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